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sábado, 10 de octubre de 2009

El futuro de las revistas académicas

Se ha publicado recientemente una obra colectiva en el que han participado con un capítulo dos colaboradores de este blog (José Luis González Quirós y Karim Gherab Martín). El libro, que lleva por título The Future of the Academic Journal, y que ha sido editado por Bill Cope y Angus Phillips y publicado por Chandos Publishing, es un intento por reflexionar sobre el futuro que espera a las revistas académicas ante el auge y el desarrollo de innovaciones que está experimentando la industria editorial tras la aparición de Internet.

El resumen del texto con el que hemos participado es el siguiente:

e-Science is a new industry growing in many developed countries. Both digital open access repositories and Grid initiatives belong to it. Nevertheless, there is a lack of epistemological and even practical attempts to unify them in a single view. Here, two perspectives are drawn to argue in favour of an open model of preserving and spreading science in the Digital Era. First, there are lots of non English language papers (above all, in the Human and Social Sciences) that lack readers; these papers would dramatically and very cheaply increase their visibility thanks to open access repositories networks. Second, self-archiving, digital repositories and Grid databases are shaping a more structured record for scientific data far beyond the traditional writing skills of scientific communication. We argue that this system may lose some subtle bits of knowledge that need to be recovered using open and dynamic archiving models, and we propose ours: what we call the Popperian Model.

Desde aquí nuestro agradecimiento a los editores, Bill Cope y Angus Phillips, por invitarnos a participar en un el libro en el que han colaborado destacadas figuras del mundo de las publicaciones académicas, como Stevan Harnad, John Willinsky, Bill Cope o Carol Tenopir. A continuación se muestra el índice completo del libro:


CONTENTS
List of figures and tables xiii
About the contributors xvii
Preface xxvii

1. Introduction 1
Bill Cope and Angus Phillips

The journal online 1
Open access 3
Scholarly communication 5
Chapter overview 6
Bibliography 9

PART I – KNOWLEDGE SYSTEMS 11

2. Signs of epistemic disruption: transformations in the knowledge system of the academic journal 13
Bill Cope and Mary Kalantzis

The knowledge business 14
Forces of epistemic disruption 17
Breaking point 1: how knowledge is made available 22
Breaking point 2: designing knowledge credibly 32
Breaking point 3: evaluating knowledge, once designed 39
Framing knowledge futures 49
Bibliography 55

3. Arguments for an open model of e-science 63
José Luis González Quirós and Karim Gherab Martín

The road to digital scientific literature 63
Open access: from linguistic and disciplinary monopoly to the
pluralism of languages and cultures 65
The Popperian model of knowledge 70
Scholarly journals and e-science 72
Journals as innovation in assembly 74
Digital repositories as trading zones 77
Bibliography 81

PART II – THE JOURNALS BUSINESS 85

4. Business models in journals publishing 87
Angus Phillips

The characteristics of the journals business 87
The lifecycle of a journal 89
Pricing 90
Cost structure 92
Subscription model 94
Alternative business models 95
Open access 96
Future of business models 98
Bibliography 101

5. The growth of journals publishing 105
Carol Tenopir and Donald W. King

Introduction 105
A historical perspective 106
Recent growth in number of titles 110
Changes in number of articles and length of articles 114
Online journals 118
The growth of electronic journals 119
Predictions for the future 120
Acknowledgments 121
Bibliography 122

6. The post-Gutenberg open access journal 125
Stevan Harnad
The classical learned journal 125
Publishing for income vs publishing for impact 127
Trade publishing 128
Gutenberg toll-access 128
Reprint requests and author give-aways 129
Access barriers and impact barriers 129
The post-Gutenberg galaxy 129
Open access (and almost open access) 130
Universal green open access may eventually make subscriptions unsustainable 131
Gold open access publishing 132
Would pay-to-publish lower peer-review standards? 133
Improving the efficiency of peer review 133
Peer feedback after posting instead of peer filtering before publishing? 133
The post-Gutenberg journal: optimal and inevitable for research and researchers 134
Bibliography 134

7. Publishing journals under a hybrid subscription and open access model 139
Claire Bird and Martin Richardson

Introduction 139
Overview of ‘Oxford Open’ models 139
Optional open access 140
Usage and citation 143
Practicalities 143
Conclusions 145
Acknowledgment 145
Bibliography 145

8. The future of copyright: what are the pressures on the present system? 147
Joss Saunders and Simon Smith

Why it takes a long time to change copyright law, and how contract law comes to the rescue 152
The criminal law 156
Conclusion 158
Bibliography 158

9. Journals ranking and impact factors: how the performance of journals is measured 159
Iain D. Craig and Liz Ferguson

Why rank journals? 159
Conventional measurement types 160
Journal citation reports 165
Author behaviour and journal strategies 168
Download statistics 175
Peer-review panel judgments 178
Combination peer review and quantitative evaluation 180
Alternative measurements 182
Conclusion 188
Acknowledgments 189
Bibliography 189

PART II – THE JOURNALS BUSINESS 195

10. ‘Cannot predict now’: the role of repositories in the future of the journal 197
Sarah L. Shreeves

The current repository landscape 198
The current impact of repositories on academic journals 201
Emerging trends 205
Notes 209
Bibliography 209

11. Libraries and the future of the journal: dodging the crossfire in the e-revolution, or leading the charge? 213
J. Eric Davies

Funding – a perpetual balancing act 214
Information and communications technology interventions 217
The library as scholarly e-communication centre – a new service paradigm 219
What next: what do libraries want? 221
Bibliography 222

12. Academic publishing and the political economy of education journals 225
Michael A. Peters

The political economy of academic publishing 228
The distribution and specialization of education journals 234
Education journals and the Social Science Citation Index 238
Open access and education journals 246
Notes 254
Bibliography 255

13. Doing medical journals differently: Open Medicine, open access and academic freedom 259
John Willinsky, Sally Murray, Claire Kendall and Anita Palepu

The violation of editorial independence at the CMAJ 261
A brief history of editorial interference in medical journal publishing 265
Open Medicine as an independent medical research journal 267
The open access model 268
Academic freedom and open access 269
The opening ahead 272
Acknowledgments 274
Notes 274
Bibliography 275

PART IV – THE JOURNAL INTERNATIONALLY 281

14. The status and future of the African journal 283
Pippa Smart

History 283
The current publishing environment within Africa 284
Why are journals published? 290
The future 293
Conclusion 297
Bibliography 298

15. The future of the journal in Asia: an information ethnographer’s notes 301
David Hakken

A Malaysian example 303
Relevant scholarly dynamics in China 307
Asian journaling: a regional and global perspective 312
Conclusion 315
Note 316
Bibliography 316

16. The future of the academic journal in China 319
Kang Tchou

Notes 332
Bibliography 333

PART V – DIGITAL TRANSFORMATIONS 335

17. Effects of the internet lifecycle on product development 337
Michiel van der Heyden and Ale de Vries

The current state of journal publishing 338
A day in the life 346
Framework 347
Collaboration tools 352
Dynamic usage information 354
Integration of usage information 355
Conclusion 359
Bibliography 359

18. Beyond the static text: multimedia interactivity in academic journal publishing in the humanities and social sciences (not) 361
Andrew Jakubowicz

Four postulates of inertia 361
The political economy of web publishing 362
Journal hierarchies, the publishing race and creative scholarship 364
Power and control in academic publishing 367
The young and the restless 369
The inevitability of change: what will be the paradigm shift that makes it happen? 370
Conclusion 373
Bibliography 374

PART – VI CODA 377

19. ‘The tiger in the corner’: will journals matter to tomorrow’s scholars? 379
Sally Morris

Acknowledgment 384
Note 384
Bibliography 384
Index 387


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